This essay narrates chronologically the life of Christian Wolff (), arguably the most eminent German philosopher between Leibniz and Kant, and an. Christian Wolff wurde am März in Berlin geboren und wuchs auch dort auf. Nach der mittleren Reife und dem Besuch einer Handelsschule entschied. Christian Wolff (* März in Berlin) ist ein deutscher Schauspieler, Synchron- und Hörbuchsprecher. Seine bekannteste Rolle spielte er zwischen
Christian Wolff (Schauspieler)Wolff: Christian W. (in seinen früheren Schriften und bei Anderen auch Wolf), Philosoph und Mathematiker, geboren am Januar in Breslau als Sohn. Christian Wolff wurde am März in Berlin geboren und wuchs auch dort auf. Nach der mittleren Reife und dem Besuch einer Handelsschule entschied. Christian Wolff wurde als Martin Rombach in der Vorabendserie "Forsthaus Falkenau" zum Förster der Nation. Geboren wurde Christian Wolff am März
Christian Wolff 1. Biographical Sketch VideoMorton Feldman - For Christian Wolff
Nothing exists without a sufficient reason for why it exists rather than does not exist. That is, if something is posited to exist, something must also be posited that explains why the first thing exists rather than does not exist.
Let us assume that some A exists without a sufficient reason for why it exists rather than does not exist.
The crucial premise italicized above purports to reveal a contradiction that follows from the assumption that something exists without a sufficient reason.
According to Wolff, every being is endowed with an essential nature. Possible things have natures insofar as they as are comprised of a number of non-contradictory determinations or predicates.
Different sets of determinations, and the relationships among these determinations, serve as the principle of individualization within the realm of possible things.
Hence, to provide the reason for a possible thing is simply to enumerate the determinations that make that thing the kind of possible thing that it is.
If, on the other hand, the something to which a reason is provided is an actual i. Recall that for Wolff existence is simply a predicate or determination of possible things.
GL: c. That is to say, although there is a certain set of specifiable determinations that is sufficient to pick out a given possible thing among all possible things, the total set of its determinations is not specifiable.
A being, in the most general sense, is comprised of three different types of determinations: essentialia , attributes, and modes. Whereas essentialia and attributes are both necessary properties of a thing, modes are contingent or accidental properties.
Thus to say a nominal being is indeterminate is to say that there are modes of it that may or may not be present.
In the weakest sense, since existence is a mode, and nominal beings do not exist as such but are able to come into existence under certain conditions, all nominal beings are indeterminate.
Yet as a Principle of Becoming, PSR serves to furnish the causes, or grounds, for why a real individual comes into actuality.
It is on the basis of PC and PSR that Wolff proceeds to explicate the fundamental concepts of his ontology. Recall that for Wolff a being in the most general sense is any possible thing.
Possible things have essential natures insofar as they are composed of a number of non-contradictory determinations or predicates. The essence of any given possible thing is its principle of being, or principle of individualization.
Whereas the essence of a simple being is defined by its essential properties, the essence of a composite being is defined by the manner in which its parts are combined together.
A being is called composed which is made up of many parts distinct from each other. The parts of which a composite being is composed constitute a composite through the link which makes the many parts taken together a unit of a definite kind.
In one respect, simple beings and composite beings are not simply two different species of beings. It is not the case, for example, that within the realm of all possible things simple beings exist separate from, and in addition to, composite beings.
Strictly speaking, the only substantial things to exist at any level of reality are simple substances. Furthermore, essential properties should not be viewed as the accidents of substance because, according to Wolff, they are the substance itself.
And according to Wolff, there are three basic classes of accidents: proper attributes, common attributes, and modes Ont.
Proper attributes are the properties of a thing that are determined by all the essentialia taken together, and common attributes are the properties of a thing that are determined by only some, but not all, its essentialia.
Modes, in contrast, are only contingent accidents of substance. They are the properties of a thing that may or may not be present, and if actually present, they are causally the result of some contingent state of affairs.
Cosmology, as a special metaphysical science, is the study of the world-whole in general. The world, as such, is an extended composite of extended composites.
The world is a collection of mutable things that are next to each other, follow upon one another, but which are overall connected with one another.
In precise terms, Wolff believes the world is an extended whole that is composed of a finite number of interacting physical bodies. To better understand the types of cosmological claims that Wolff defends about the universe, it is perhaps helpful to consider first his conception of physical bodies.
Ultimately, the conclusions that Wolff draws at the macroscopic level about the world-whole are simply extrapolated from his analysis of physical bodies.
To facilitate our discussion, we should identify the three levels of description that Wolff employs when giving his two perspective account.
Identifying these three different levels is helpful in understanding at what respective point the mechanical and metaphysical accounts each terminate or bottom out.
Each atomic element is defined, or individuated, by its own distinctive internal state and each is considered to be indivisible in-itself.
The second level of description that Wolff employs when giving his account of bodies is the microphysical level.
The occupants of this level are the primitive parts of bodies which Wolff calls corpuscles or material atoms. That is called an atom of nature which is indivisible in itself because it is devoid of parts into which it can be divided.
That is called a material atom which in itself is able to be divided, but for actually dividing it, existing causes in rerum natura are not adequate.
Material atoms or corpuscles are indivisible in the sense that there is nothing within the world that is capable of reducing them into further parts.
Corpuscles represent the lowest level of explanation that is possible within a mechanical account of bodies.
Similar to the atomic level, the microphysical level lies beyond the boundaries of human perception. It is unclear, for example, whether all corpuscles retain homogeneity with respect to their magnitude and shape.
Yet because corpuscles are a species of composite beings, Wolff is confident that the essence of a corpuscle consists in the manner in which its parts are joined together.
A corpuscle is an aggregate of atomic elements. Its component parts are simply the unextended points of force that occupy the atomic level. The third level of description that Wolff employs when giving his account of bodies is the level of appearance or sensible reality.
It is at this level that bodies and their phenomenal properties, such as extension, the force of inertia, and motor force vis motrix , are described in mechanistic terms.
I prefer that aggregates of simple substances, namely, those compound beings of which the material world is composed, be called bodies rather than simple substances….
In a strict sense, a body is considered by Wolff to be a composite of composites. The interacting atomic elements conceived as unextended points of force give rise to primitive corpuscles and from the cohesion of corpuscles, a body is thereby constituted at the level of appearance.
At the level of appearance, bodies display a number of determinate properties. Each body has a specifiable size or magnitude i. Yet, according to Wolff, the properties of bodies should not be considered as the accidents of anything substantial because bodies are merely phenomenal manifestations of real, interacting, atomic elements.
Even the principal properties of bodies used in the analysis of bodily change and motion i. Now according to Wolff all sensible properties of bodies should be considered as secondary or mind-dependent qualities.
For Locke, the primary qualities of bodies, such as extension, solidity, shape, size and texture give rise to the secondary qualities that we perceive in bodies, such as color, sound, taste, smell and temperature.
Wolff, for the most part, accepts this causal-corpuscularian theory of secondary qualities. In very simplistic terms, sensible properties are for Wolff what color, sound, taste, smell and temperature are for Locke.
For both philosophers, secondary qualities are phenomenal and mind-dependent properties having their causal origin in some objective i.
For Locke, this reality is the independently existing corpuscles that comprise the material world; and for Wolff, this reality is the unextended points of force, or simple substances, that occupy his atomic level cf.
Its reality is derivative of the interacting atomic elements that give rise to individual corpuscles.
A given place is conceived as an imaginary immobile container that has the same dimensions as the extended thing that occupies it Ont. General space, in contrast, is conceived as the perceived order of coexisting bodies.
As explained above, the existence of bodies is established by Wolff experientially and amounts to an instance of historical cognition.
If we pay attention to ourselves [as thinking things], we will find that we are conscious of many things outside ourselves. However, we set them apart from us in that we recognize that they are distinguishable from us, just in the same way as they are set beside each other, we recognize they are distinguishable from each other….
In that there are many things now which exist at the same time and which are presented apart and yet at the same time different from each other, such things come into being under a certain order.
And as soon as we perceive this order we perceive space. Therefore, if we do not want to examine the matter differently than we recognize it, we must assume space is the order of such things which are simultaneous.
First, knowledge of the self, as a thinking thing, affords a distinction between consciousness, on one hand, and consciousness of external things, on the other.
Second, since that which is conscious viz. And third, since this empirical fact affords knowledge of real existences, the order or way the self represents these things is what becomes known as space.
Beck In contrast to his theories of place and general space, Wolff holds a much more realistic theory of time. In a strict sense, place and space serve an explanatory role for Wolff at two distinct levels of description viz.
Since atomic elements are unextended, the concepts of place and space are considered by Wolff to be extraneous at the atomic level.
Time, however, is not. Atomic elements are in time insofar as each element is in a constant state of change. Since each atomic element produces in-itself a constant and continuous series of changes, time is regarded by Wolff as the objective measure of such changes.
One clear statement of the Wolffian view of the relationship between time and change can be found in a letter to Kant dated 13 October from Johann Heinrich Lambert.
Lambert —77 writes:. All changes are bound to time and are inconceivable without time. If changes are real, then time is real, whatever it may be.
If time is unreal, then no change can be real. I think, though, that even an idealist must grant at least that changes really exist and occur in his representations, for example, their beginning and ending.
Thus time cannot be regarded as something unreal. For Wolff, Lambert, and Moses Mendelssohn, time is real insofar as it is an objective measure of change cf.
Falkenstein for discussion. Change is a constant feature of existing reality in that real individuals are finite and created beings with a determinate duration.
German Actors. Do you have a demo reel? Add it to your IMDbPage. How Much Have You Seen? How much of Christian Wolff's work have you seen? Known For.
Alt Heidelberg Erbprinz Karl-Heinrich. Via Mala Niklas Lauretz. Die Unternehmungen des Herrn Hans Herr Hans. Jump to: Actor Additional Crew Soundtrack Self Archive footage.
Georg Schön. Eberhard Jakob. Narrator voice, uncredited. Show all 8 episodes. Norbert Lenz. Herbert Kosterlitz. Thomas Ritter. Lord Harrington.
Henry Payson. Hakon Petterson. Lustig - Entscheidung in der Savanne Martin Rombach. Show all episodes. However, the claims Wolff advanced on behalf of philosophical reason appeared impious to his theological colleagues.
Halle was the headquarters of Pietism , which, after a long struggle against Lutheran dogmatism , had assumed the characteristics of a new orthodoxy.
Wolff's professed ideal was to base theological truths on mathematically certain evidence. Strife with the Pietists broke out openly in , when Wolff, on the occasion of stepping down as pro-rector, delivered an oration "On the Practical Philosophy of the Chinese" Eng.
On 12 July Wolff held a lecture for students and the magistrates at the end of his term as a rector.
As a consequence, Wolff was ousted in from his first chair at Halle in one of the most celebrated academic dramas of the 18th century.
His successors were Joachim Lange , a pietist, and his son. His opponents had gained the ear of the king Frederick William I and told him that, if Wolff's determinism were recognized, no soldier who deserted could be punished, since he would have acted only as it was necessarily predetermined that he should.
This so enraged the king that he immediately deprived Wolff of his office, and commanded him to leave Prussian territory within 48 hours or be hanged.
The same day Wolff passed into Saxony, and presently proceeded to Marburg , Hesse-Kassel , to whose university the University of Marburg he had received a call even before this crisis, which was now renewed.
The Landgrave of Hesse received him with every mark of distinction, and the circumstances of his expulsion drew universal attention to his philosophy.
It was everywhere discussed, and over two hundred books and pamphlets appeared for or against it before , not reckoning the systematic treatises of Wolff and his followers.
According to Jonathan I. Israel "the conflict became one of the most significant cultural confrontations of the 18th century and perhaps the most important of the Enlightenment in Central Europe and the Baltic countries before the French Revolution.
In Wolff published his Discours, in which he again mentioned the importance of listening to music put on pregnant Chinese women [note 1] , and had reworded some on Moses.
The Prussian crown prince Frederick defended Wolff against Joachim Lange and ordered the Berlin minister Jean Deschamps, a former pupil of Wolff, to translate Vernünftige Gedanken von Gott, der Welt und der Seele des Menschen, auch allen Dingen überhaupt into French.
In Wolff's Metafysica was translated into French by Ulrich Friedrich von Suhm — In Frederick William began the hard labour of trying to read Wolff.
His entry into the town on 6 December took on the character of a triumphal procession. In , he became chancellor of the university, and in , he received the title of Freiherr Baron from the Elector of Bavaria.
But his matter was no longer fashionable, he had outlived his power of attracting students,  and his class-rooms remained, while not empty, then certainly emptier than they had been during his heyday in Marburg.
When Wolff died on 9 April , he was a very wealthy man, owing almost entirely to his income from lecture-fees, salaries, and royalties.
He was also a member of many academies and probably the first scholar to have been created hereditary Baron of the Holy Roman Empire on the basis of his academic work.
His school, the Wolffians, was the first school, in the philosophical sense, associated with a German philosopher.
It dominated Germany until the rise of Kantianism. Christian Wolff redefined philosophy as the science of the possible, and applied it in a comprehensive survey of human knowledge to the disciplines of his time.
Wolffian philosophy has a marked insistence everywhere on a clear and methodic exposition, holding confidence in the power of reason to reduce all subjects to this form.
He was distinguished for writing copies in both Latin and German. Wolff's teachings held virtually undisputed sway in Germany till the Kantian revolution,  and even after that, Wolff continued to be regarded as one of the most important philosophers from German-speaking lands.
Through his influence, natural law and philosophy were taught at most German universities, in particular those located in the Protestant principalities.
Wolff personally expedited their introduction inside Hesse-Cassel. New York, Folkways Records, Wolff is mentioned in piece numbers 4 , 8 , 9 and 14 , as well as numbers 91 and , which were published after Folkways' original release.
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Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.Christian G. Wolff (born March 8, ) is an American composer of experimental classical music. Christian Wolff was born on March 11, in Berlin, Germany. He is known for his work on Forsthaus Falkenau (), Alt Heidelberg () and Via Mala (). He has been married to Marina Handloser since June 27, They have one child. Christian, baron von Wolff, Wolff also spelled Wolf, (born January 24, , Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland]—died April 9, , Halle, Prussia [Germany]), philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who worked in many subjects but who is best known as the German spokesman of the Enlightenment. Christian Wolff, German philosopher and mathematician, the son of a tanner, was born at Breslau on the 24th of January At the university of Jena he studied first mathematics and physics, to which he soon added philosophy. Christian Wolff was an Austrian gunner on the Obra Dinn during her last voyage in He died when he was shot point-blank by a cannon.